PC-based hazard anticipation training for experienced cyclists: Design and evaluation

N. Kovácsová*, W. P. Vlakveld, J. C.F. de Winter, M. P. Hagenzieker

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
35 Downloads (Pure)


Research shows that the ability to anticipate safety-critical situations is predictive of safe performance in traffic. Thus far, hazard anticipation training has been developed mainly for car drivers. These training programs may not be appropriate for cyclists who are exposed to different types of hazards. This study aimed to develop a PC-based hazard anticipation training for experienced cyclists, and evaluate its short-term effectiveness using hazard anticipation tests. Sixty-six electric bicycle users completed either a hazard anticipation training or a control intervention. The hazard anticipation training consisted of videos divided into two modules (instructions and practice) and was designed using various evidence-based hazard anticipation educational methods such as a ‘What happens next?’ task, expert commentary, performance feedback, and analogical transfer between hazardous traffic situations. The evaluation of the training showed that cyclists from the training group identified hazards faster compared to the control group cyclists, but no significant difference was found in the number of detected hazards between the two groups. The training had a small positive effect on cyclists’ prediction accuracy at safety-critical intersection situations. No effect was found on perceived danger and risk in hazardous traffic situations. Our results suggest that experienced cyclists’ hazard anticipation skills can be improved with the developed PC-based training. Future research should evaluate the retention and transfer of learned skills.

Original languageEnglish
Article number104561
Number of pages14
JournalSafety Science
Publication statusPublished - 2020

Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository ‘You share, we take care!’ – Taverne project https://www.openaccess.nl/en/you-share-we-take-care

Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.


  • Cognitive skills
  • Cyclist education
  • Electric bicycle users
  • Situation awareness
  • What happens next


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