Performance Analysis and Fleet Requirements of Automated Demand-Responsive Transport Systems as an Urban Public Transport Service

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Abstract

The introduction of public transport services by fully automated vehicles can potentially change the way public transit services will be operated, as they allow shifting from rigid scheduled and route-bound services towards flexible, demand-responsive services. This study examines the potential performance of an Automated Demand Responsive Transport Service (ADRTS) as a replacement for scheduled bus services and simulates the effects of demand levels, vehicle capacity, vehicle dwell time and the initial vehicle distribution on system performance in terms of fleet size and system costs. The simulation tool allows simulating the operation of the ADRTS in a complete graph and is applied to the case study of Arnhem, the Netherlands. For this case study it has been shown that for a minimum fleet size following the imposed constraints, the operational costs range between 0.84 and 1.22 Euros and the average passenger wait time ranges between 2 and 6 minutes, according to the assumptions made on demand and operational parameters. The operational costs of the ADRTS showed to be in the same range of the current bus system, while providing a demand-responsive transport service with an average waiting time of around 4 minutes per passenger-trip. The economies of scale, which play an important role in public transport, are also apparent in the simulated ADRTS operations.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)151-167
JournalInternational Journal of Transportation Science and Technology
Volume7
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018

Keywords

  • demand responsive transport
  • shared automated vehicles
  • cost determination
  • fleet size determination
  • flexible public transport
  • vehicle assignment

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