Performance Assessment of Distance Protection in Systems with High Penetration of PVs

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This paper deals with the investigation of the performance of distance protection in a 400 kV transmission line for a system with high penetration of photovoltaic sources (PV). A grid with a PV plant is designed in RSCAD software environment, which is supported by RTDS. By performing hardware-in-the-loop tests, two commercial relays are investigated in real-time. Firstly, the distance protection function is tested with a synchronous generator to check the response of the studied system and validate correct relay settings. Afterwards, the synchronous generator is replaced by a generic PV plant model. The impact of different fault locations, fault types and fault impedances are studied. Finally, the critical scenarios in the power system are determined for which a relay fails to detect a fault. Many simulations are performed and cases, when a relay unexpected operations, are identified. Relevant solutions to overcome these problems are suggested.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2019 IEEE Milan PowerTech, PowerTech 2019
Number of pages6
ISBN (Electronic) 978-1-5386-4722-6
ISBN (Print)978-1-5386-4723-3
Publication statusPublished - 2019
Event2019 IEEE Milan PowerTech, PowerTech 2019 - Milan, Italy
Duration: 23 Jun 201927 Jun 2019

Publication series

Name2019 IEEE Milan PowerTech, PowerTech 2019


Conference2019 IEEE Milan PowerTech, PowerTech 2019

Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository ‘You share, we take care!’ – Taverne project
Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.


  • Distance protection function
  • Hardware-in-the-loop test
  • Photovoltaic plant
  • Real-time digital simulation
  • VSC converter


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