Performance evaluation of knitted and stitched textile strain sensors

Kaspar M.B. Jansen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)
95 Downloads (Pure)


By embedding conductive yarns in, or onto, knitted textile fabrics, simple but robust stretch sensor garments can be manufactured. In that way resistance based sensors can be fully integrated in textiles without compromising wearing comfort, stretchiness, washability, and ease of use in daily life. The many studies on such textile strain sensors that have been published in recent years show that these sensors work in principle, but closer inspection reveals that many of them still have severe practical limitations like a too narrow working range, lack of sensitivity, and undesired time-dependent and hysteresis effects. For those that intend to use this technology it is difficult to determine which manufacturing parameters, shape, stitch type, and materials to apply to realize a functional sensor for a given application. This paper therefore aims to serve as a guideline for the fashion designers, electronic engineers, textile researchers, movement scientists, and human–computer interaction specialists planning to create stretch sensor garments. The paper is limited to textile based sensors that can be constructed using commercially available conductive yarns and existing knitting and embroidery equipment. Within this subtopic, relevant literature is discussed, and a detailed quantitative comparison is provided focusing on sensor characteristics like the gauge factor, working range, and hysteresis.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7236
Pages (from-to)1-28
Number of pages28
JournalSensors (Switzerland)
Issue number24
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Conductive yarns
  • Knitted sensor
  • Performance evaluation
  • Stitched sensor
  • Textile strain sensors

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