Performance evaluation of real time control in urban wastewater systems in practice: Review and perspective

Petra van Daal-Rombouts, Günter Gruber, Jeroen Langeveld, Dirk Muschalla, Francois Clemens

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

24 Citations (Scopus)
80 Downloads (Pure)


Real time control (RTC) is generally viewed as a viable method for optimising the performance of urban wastewater systems. A literature review on the performance evaluation of RTC demonstrated a lack of consensus on how to do this. Two main deficiencies were identified: omitting uncertainty analysis and applying limited evaluation periods. A general methodology to evaluate the performance of RTC in practice, that takes into account these deficiencies, is proposed. The methodology is either data or model driven and the (dis)advantages of each are discussed. In a case study for a combined sewer system with limited discharge to a WWTP, it is demonstrated that the successful application of RTC and the possibility to determine a significant effect is very much dependent on the goal. It also clearly illustrates the need for taking uncertainties into account and that careful consideration in the chosen evaluation period is required.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)90-101
JournalEnvironmental Modelling & Software
Publication statusPublished - 2017

Bibliographical note

Accepted Author Manuscript


  • Evaluation period
  • Monitoring
  • Modelling
  • RTC
  • Uncertainty analysis
  • Urban drainage systems


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