Peri-prosthetic tissue cells show osteogenic capacity to differentiate into the osteoblastic lineage

Monique A.E. Schoeman, Angela E. Oostlander, Karien Ede Rooij, Edward R. Valstar, Rob G.H.H. Nelissen

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Abstract

During the process of aseptic loosening of prostheses, particulate wear debris induces a continuous inflammatory-like response resulting in the formation of a layer of fibrous peri-prosthetic tissue at the bone-prosthesis interface. The current treatment for loosening is revision surgery which is associated with a high-morbidity rate, especially in old patients. Therefore, less invasive alternatives are necessary. One approach could be to re-establish osseointegration of the prosthesis by inducing osteoblast differentiation in the peri-prosthetic tissue. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of peri-prosthetic tissue cells to differentiate into the osteoblast lineage. Cells isolated from peri-prosthetic tissue samples (n = 22)−obtained during revision surgeries−were cultured under normal and several osteogenic culture conditions. Osteogenic differentiation was assessed by measurement of Alkaline Phosphatse (ALP), mineralization of the matrix and expression of several osteogenic genes. Cells cultured in osteogenic medium showed a significant increase in ALP staining (p = 0.024), mineralization of the matrix (p < 0.001) and ALP gene expression (p = 0.014) compared to normal culture medium. Addition of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), a specific GSK3β inhibitor (GIN) or a combination of BMP and GIN to osteogenic medium could not increase ALP staining, mineralization, and ALP gene expression. In one donor, addition of GIN was required to induce mineralization of the matrix. Overall, we observed a high-inter-donor variability in response to osteogenic stimuli. In conclusion, peri-prosthetic tissue cells, cultured under osteogenic conditions, can produce alkaline phosphatase and mineralized matrix, and therefore show characteristics of differentiation into the osteoblastic lineage.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1732-1742
JournalJournal of Orthopaedic Research: a journal for musculoskeletal investigation
Volume35
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017

Keywords

  • Aseptic loosening
  • osteogenic differentiation
  • peri-prosthetic tissue
  • regenerative medicine
  • total hip revision

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