Permanent Electrochemical Doping of Quantum Dot Films through Photopolymerization of Electrolyte Ions

Hamit Eren, Roland Jan Reiner Bednarz, Maryam Alimoradi Jazi, Laura Donk, Solrun Gudjonsdottir, Peggy Bohländer, Rienk Eelkema, Arjan J. Houtepen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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Quantum dots (QDs) are considered for devices like light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and photodetectors as a result of their tunable optoelectronic properties. To utilize the full potential of QDs for optoelectronic applications, control over the charge carrier density is vital. However, controlled electronic doping of these materials has remained a long-standing challenge, thus slowing their integration into optoelectronic devices. Electrochemical doping offers a way to precisely and controllably tune the charge carrier concentration as a function of applied potential and thus the doping levels in QDs. However, the injected charges are typically not stable after disconnecting the external voltage source because of electrochemical side reactions with impurities or with the surfaces of the QDs. Here, we use photopolymerization to covalently bind polymerizable electrolyte ions to polymerizable solvent molecules after electrochemical charge injection. We discuss the importance of using polymerizable dopant ions as compared to nonpolymerizable conventional electrolyte ions such as LiClO4 when used in electrochemical doping. The results show that the stability of charge carriers in QD films can be enhanced by many orders of magnitude, from minutes to several weeks, after photochemical ion fixation. We anticipate that this novel way of stable doping of QDs will pave the way for new opportunities and potential uses in future QD electronic devices.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4019-4028
JournalChemistry of Materials
Publication statusPublished - 2022


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