This paper proposes a photogrammetric procedure able to determine out-of-plane movements experienced by a masonry structure subjected to a quasi-static cyclic test. The method tracks the movement of circular targets by means of a coarse-to-fine strategy. These targets were captured by means of a photogrammetric network, made up of four cameras optimized following the precepts of a zero-, first-, and second-order design. The centroid of each circular target was accurately detected for each image using the Hough transform, a sub-pixel edge detector based on the partial area effect, and a non-linear square optimization strategy. The three-dimensional (3D) coordinates of these targets were then computed through a photogrammetric bundle adjustment considering a self-calibration model of the camera. To validate the photogrammetric method, measurements were carried out in parallel to an ongoing test on a full-scale two-story unreinforced masonry structure (5.4 × 5.2 × 5.4-m) monitored with more than 200 contact sensors. The results provided by the contact sensors during one of the load phases were compared with those obtained by the proposed approach. According to this accuracy assessment, the method was able to determine the out-of-plane displacement during the quasi-static cyclic test with a sub-pixel accuracy of 0.58.
- Full-scale test
- Network design and adjustment
- Out-of-plane movement
- Principal component analysis
- Target tracking