Photon-Counting Arrays for Time-Resolved Imaging

Michel Antolovic, S Burri, RA Hoebe, Yuki Maruyama, C Bruschini, Edoardo Charbon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)
57 Downloads (Pure)


The paper presents a camera comprising 512 × 128 pixels capable of single-photon detection and gating with a maximum frame rate of 156 kfps. The photon capture is performed through a gated single-photon avalanche diode that generates a digital pulse upon photon detection and through a digital one-bit counter. Gray levels are obtained through multiple counting and accumulation, while time-resolved imaging is achieved through a 4-ns gating window controlled with subnanosecond accuracy by a field-programmable gate array. The sensor, which is equipped with microlenses to enhance its effective fill factor, was electro-optically characterized in terms of sensitivity and uniformity. Several examples of capture of fast events are shown to demonstrate the suitability of the approach.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1005
Pages (from-to)1-15
Number of pages15
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 29 Jun 2016


  • single-photon avalanche diode
  • SPAD
  • fluorescence
  • fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy
  • FLIM
  • fluorescence correlation spectroscopy
  • FCS
  • OA-Fund TU Delft

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