Placement and sizing of solar PV and Wind systems in trolleybus grids

Ibrahim Diab*, Bram Scheurwater, Alice Saffirio, Gautham Ram Chandra-Mouli, Pavol Bauer

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)
84 Downloads (Pure)


Reducing the environmental impact of transportation requires the successful integration of renewable energy sources into the electrical transportation networks. However, the mismatch between renewable generation and the intermittent bus schedules causes temporary absence of loads and creates considerable excess energy, potentially rendering the systems economically infeasible. So far, studies on integration of renewables in transport grids were limited to decentralized solar PV systems (placed at the substation level), using statistical or simplified models, and concerned mainly with increasing the trolleygrid capacity. In this paper, both PV and Wind systems are considered and studied as to maximize their direct utilization by using verified simulation models for six different sizing and placement scenarios. The Dutch trolleygrid of Arnhem is used as a case study. Scenarios I to V looked at a decentralized renewable sources placement and ultimately concluded that PV systems at low-traffic substations are best sized for complete energy-neutrality, with daily storage systems. On the other hand, those at high-traffic substations should be without storage and sized below their energy-neutrality point — ideally, using the Marginal Utilization approach (scenario III). Finally, the Centralized (Aggregated) Energy-Neutral Wind and PV Approach of scenario VI offers the best outcome, with a hybrid solution of 53% PV and 47% Wind. This scenario offers a 54.1% direct bus load coverage. In comparison, scenario I, which had attempted a grid energy-neutrality in a decentralized manner, had only achieved 32.4% direct load coverage. The outcome of scenario VI can even be pushed to values above 80% by installing storage systems.

Original languageEnglish
Article number131533
Pages (from-to)1-11
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Cleaner Production
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • DC systems
  • Electric mobility
  • Public transport
  • Solar PV
  • Trolleybus
  • Wind energy


Dive into the research topics of 'Placement and sizing of solar PV and Wind systems in trolleybus grids'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this