Platooning of Automated Ground Vehicles to Connect Port and Hinterland: A Multi-objective Optimization Approach

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Automated ground vehicles (AGVs) are essential parts of container operations at many ports. Forming platoons—as conceptually established in trucking—may allow these vehicles to directly cater demand points such as dry ports in the hinterland. In this work, we aim to assess such AGV platoons in terms of operational efficiency and costs, considering the case of the Port of Rotterdam. We propose a multi-objective mixed-integer programming model that minimizes dwell and idle times, on the one hand, and the total cost of the system involving transportation, labor, and platoon formation costs, on the other hand. To achieve Pareto optimal solutions that capture the trade-offs between minimizing cost and time, we apply an augmented epsilon constraint method. The results indicate that all the containers are delivered by AGVs. This not only shortens the dwell time of the containers by decreasing loading/unloading processes and eliminating stacking but also leads to considerable cost savings.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationComputational Logistics
Subtitle of host publicationProceedings of the 11th International Conference, ICCL 2020
EditorsEduardo Lalla-Ruiz, Martijn Mes, Stefan Voß
Place of PublicationCham, Switzerland
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-030-59747-4
ISBN (Print)978-3-030-59746-7
Publication statusPublished - 2020
Event11th International Conference on Computational Logistics, ICCL 2020 - Enschede, Netherlands
Duration: 28 Sep 202030 Sep 2020

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349


Conference11th International Conference on Computational Logistics, ICCL 2020

Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository 'You share, we take care!' - Taverne project

Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.


  • Automated ground vehicles
  • Container terminals
  • Emission analysis
  • Loading/unloading operations
  • Platooning


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