PLAXIS The PM4Sand model 2018

G. Vilhar (Editor), Ronald Brinkgreve (Editor), l. Zampich (Editor)

Research output: Book/ReportBook editingScientific


The PM4Sand model successfully simulates the material behaviour of sands in dynamic loading, including the pore pressure generation, liquefaction and post-liquefaction phenomena. It is a very attractive model for the industry due to a small number of parameters to be calibrated. They are mostly related to the usually available data in the design practice (e.g. DR, SPT, CPT, Vs values). This report summarises the implementation of the PM4Sand model version 3.1 (Boulanger & Ziotopoulou, 2017) in the PLAXIS finite element code. The model is defined in the basic framework of the stress-ratio controlled, critical state compatible, bounding surface plasticity model for sand by Dafalias & Manzari (2004). Many modifications were added to the Dafalias & Manzari (2004) model in order to more accurately simulate stress-strain responses that are important to geotechnical earthquake engineering practice. The developments are described in the manuals (version 1: (Boulanger, 2010); version 2: (Boulanger & Ziotopoulou, 2012); version 3: (Boulanger & Ziotopoulou, 2015); version 3.1: (Boulanger & Ziotopoulou, 2017)).
Original languageEnglish
PublisherPlaxis BV
Number of pages71
Publication statusPublished - 2018


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