Policy and society related implications of automated driving: a review of literature and directions for future research

Dimitris Milakis, Bart van Arem, Bert van Wee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

395 Citations (Scopus)
257 Downloads (Pure)


In this paper, the potential effects of automated driving that are relevant to policy and society are explored, findings discussed in literature about those effects are reviewed and areas for future research are identified. The structure of our review is based on the ripple effect concept, which represents the implications of automated vehicles at three different stages: first-order (traffic, travel cost, and travel choices), second-order (vehicle ownership and sharing, location choices and land use and transport infrastructure) and third-order (energy consumption, air pollution, safety, social equity, economy and public health). Our review shows that first-order impacts on road capacity, fuel efficiency, emissions and accidents risk are expected to be beneficial. The magnitude of these benefits will likely increase with the level of automation and cooperation and with the penetration rate of these systems. The synergistic effects between vehicle automation, electrification and sharification can multiply these benefits. However, studies confirm that automated vehicles can induce additional travel demand because of more and longer vehicle trips. Potential land use changes have not been included in these estimations about excessive travel demand. Other third-order benefits on safety, economy, public health and social equity still remain unclear. Therefore, the balance between the short-term benefits and long-term impacts of vehicle automation remains an open question.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages25
JournalJournal of Intelligent Transportation Systems: technology, planning, and operations
Publication statusPublished - 2017


  • Automated driving
  • policy and societal implications
  • ripple effect
  • first, second, and third order impacts


Dive into the research topics of 'Policy and society related implications of automated driving: a review of literature and directions for future research'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this