Transportation's effects on health and well-being are widely recognized. In the near future, autonomous vehicles (AVs) are expected to revolutionize transportation options and ways of travel. Consequently, the effect of AVs on population health and well-being is a crucial topic of interest for transportation policymaking, one that has received comparatively little attention. This chapter discusses (and anticipates) potential AV impacts on health and well-being. First, we summarize knowledge surrounding effects of transportation on physical health (traffic safety, air and noise pollution, and physical activity) and well-being (travel satisfaction, access to activities, etc.). We then discuss how AVs may affect traveler behaviors, focusing on mode shifts toward private, shared, and/or pooled AVs, and how these shifts may lead to an overall increase in automobile travel, even if not necessarily in person-travel. Finally, we interpret the previous two sections to deduce potential positive, negative, and uncertain health/well-being effects of AVs. We expect benefits from improved safety, well-being, and access to opportunities; disadvantages from reduced physical activity; and uncertain impacts around land use changes and emissions. We conclude by discussing policy implications and research paths forward.