Potentials and barriers to land-based mitigation technologies and practices (LMTs)—a review

Lokendra Karki*, Jenny Lieu, Maria Xylia, Moritz Laub, David Ismangil, Luis Virla, Eric Rahn, Bibiana Alejandra Bilbao, Siti Nurlaila Indriani, More Authors

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
60 Downloads (Pure)


Land-based mitigation technologies and practices (LMTs) are critical for achieving the Paris Agreement’s aim of avoiding dangerous climate change by limiting the rise in average global surface temperatures. We developed a detailed two-level classification and analysis of the barriers to the adoption and scaling up of LMTs. The review suggests that afforestation/reforestation and forest management are LMTs with wide application and high potential across all continents. BECCS (bioenergy with carbon capture and storage) and biochar have a higher potential in higher-income countries in the short term, due to the availability of technology, funding, and low-cost biomass value chains. Although most LMTs can be cost-effective across multiple world regions, limited knowledge concerning their implementation and insufficient financing appear to be the main barriers to their large-scale deployment. Without considering gender and the rights of marginalised and Indigenous Peoples, the large-scale deployment of LMTs can further aggravate existing inequalities. Therefore, the social and institutional implications of LMTs need to be better understood to improve their public acceptance and reduce negative impacts. An integrated system approach is necessary to strike a balance between ambitious land-based mitigation targets and socioeconomic and environmental goals.

Original languageEnglish
Article number093003
Number of pages28
JournalEnvironmental Research Letters
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • barriers
  • land-based mitigation technologies
  • LMT
  • potentials
  • sustainability


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