PPP-RTK and inter-system biases: the ISB look-up table as a means to support multi-system PPP-RTK

A. Khodabandeh, P. J G Teunissen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

29 Citations (Scopus)


PPP-RTK has the potential of benefiting enormously from the integration of multiple GNSS/RNSS systems. However, since unaccounted inter-system biases (ISBs) have a direct impact on the integer ambiguity resolution performance, the PPP-RTK network and user models need to be flexible enough to accommodate the occurrence of system-specific receiver biases. In this contribution we present such undifferenced, multi-system PPP-RTK full-rank models for both network and users. By an application of S-system theory, the multi-system estimable parameters are presented, thereby identifying how each of the three PPP-RTK components are affected by the presence of the system-specific biases. As a result different scenarios are described of how these biases can be taken into account. To have users benefit the most, we propose the construction of an ISB look-up table. It allows users to search the table for a network receiver of their own type and select the corresponding ISBs, thus effectively realizing their own ISB-corrected user model. By applying such corrections, the user model is strengthened and the number of integer-estimable user ambiguities is maximized.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)837-851
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Geodesy
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2016


  • Differential ISB (DISB)
  • Inter-system bias (ISB)
  • ISB look-up table
  • Multi-GNSS

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