Precision analysis of troposphere sensing using GPS single-frequency signals

K. Wang*, A. Khodabandeh, P. J.G. Teunissen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
44 Downloads (Pure)


Various studies have been performed to investigate the accuracy of troposphere zenith wet delays (ZWDs) determined from GPS. Most of these studies use dual-frequency GPS data of large-scale networks with long baselines to determine the absolute ZWDs. For small-scale networks the estimability of the absolute ZWDs deteriorates due to high correlation between the solutions of the ZWDs and satellite-specific parameters as satellite clocks. However, as relative ZWDs (rZWDs) can always be estimated, irrespective of the size of the network, it is of interest to understand how the large-scale network rZWD-performance of dual-frequency GPS using an ionosphere-float model compares to the small-scale network rZWD-performance of single-frequency GPS using an ionosphere-weighted model. In this contribution such an analysis is performed using undifferenced and uncombined network parametrization modelling. In this context we demonstrate the ionosphere weighted constraints, which allows the determination of the rZWDs independent from signals on the second frequency. Based on an analysis of both simulated and real data, it is found that under quiet ionosphere conditions, the accuracy of the single-frequency determined rZWDs in the ionosphere-weighted network is comparable to that of the large-scale dual-frequency network without ionospheric constraints. Making use of the real data from two baselines of 15 days, it was found that the absolute differences of the rZWDs applying the two strategies are within 1 cm in over 90% and 95% of the time for ambiguity-float and -fixed cases, respectively.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)148-159
Number of pages12
JournalAdvances in Space Research
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository ‘You share, we take care!’ – Taverne project Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.


  • Dual-frequency
  • Global Positioning System (GPS)
  • Ionosphere
  • Single-frequency
  • Troposphere
  • Zenith Wet Delay (ZWD)


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