Precision and Reliability of Tightly Coupled PPP GNSS and Landmark Monocular Vision Positioning

Menglin Pang, Christian Tiberius

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
44 Downloads (Pure)


This paper presents an approach to analyse the quality, in terms of precision and reliability, of a system which integrates-at the observation-level-landmark positions and GNSS measurements, obtained with a single camera and a digital map, and a single frequency GNSS receiver respectively. We illustrate the analysis by means of design computations, and we present the actual performance by means of a small experiment in practice. It is shown that the integration model is able to produce a position solution even when both sensors individually fail to do so. With realistic assumptions on measurement noise, the proposed integrated, low-cost system can deliver a horizontal position with a precision of better than half a meter. The external reliability of the integrated system is at the few decimetre-level, showing that the impact of undetected faults in the measurements, for instance incorrectly identified landmarks in the image, on the horizontal position is limited and acceptable, thereby confirming the fault-robustness of the system.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1537
Number of pages22
JournalSensors (Basel, Switzerland)
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • GNSS
  • Landmark
  • Monocular camera
  • Precise Point Positioning (PPP)
  • Precision
  • Reliability
  • Sensor integration


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