The use of Stirling-cycle-based heat pumps in high-temperature applications and waste heat recovery at an industrial scale is of increasing interest due to the promising role in producing thermal energy with zero CO2 emissions. This paper analyzes one such technology as developed by Olvondo Technology and installed at the pharmaceutical company AstraZeneca in Sweden. In this application, the heat pump used roughly equal amounts of waste heat and electricity and generated 500 kW of steam at 10 bar. To develop and widen the use of a high-performance high-temperature heat pump that is both economically and environmentally viable and attractive, various analysis tools such as exergy analysis and life cycle assessment (LCA) can be combined. The total cumulative exergy loss (TCExL) method used in this study determines total exergy losses caused throughout the life cycle of the heat pump. Moreover, an LCA study using SimaPro was conducted, which provides insight into the different emissions and the overall environmental footprint resulting from the construction, operation (for example, 1, 8, and 15 years), and decommissioning phases of the heat pump. The combined results were compared with those of a fossil fuel oil boiler (OB), a bio-oil boiler (BOB), a natural gas-fired boiler (NGB), and a biogas boiler (BGB).
- Exergy analysis
- Life cycle assessment (LCA)
- Stirling-cycle-based heat pump
- Total cumulative exergy loss (TCExL)