Probabilistic Perspective on Compensatory, Pursuit and Preview Manual Control

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Mathematical human control models are widely used in tuning manual control systems and understanding human performance. Human behavior is commonly described using linear time-invariant models, averaging-out all non-linear and time-varying effects, which are gathered into the remnant. These models are limited in their capability to capture particular tracking strategies that an experienced subject may learn to use. In this paper, we consider manual control from a different perspective, namely through investigating the probability densities of the tracking error for different regions of the target signal amplitude. Results show that distinct strategies become apparent for compensatory, pursuit and preview tracking tasks. Effects of these strategies are often averaged-out by current models and can only be captured in situation-dependent models. Modeling this systematic human adaptation not captured in linear models could potentially lead to better model fits and explain/reduce part of the remnant.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)154-159
Number of pages6
Issue number29
Publication statusPublished - 2022
Event15th IFAC Symposium on Analysis, Design and Evaluation of Human Machine Systems, HMS 2022 - San Jose, United States
Duration: 12 Sep 202215 Sep 2022


  • Cybernetics
  • manual control
  • probability theory
  • system identification


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