Probes, toolkits and prototypes: Three approaches to making in codesigning

Elizabeth B.N. Sanders, Pieter Jan Stappers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

271 Citations (Scopus)


The role of making in the design process has been growing, taking on new forms and involving new players over the past 10 years. Where we once primarily saw designers using making to give shape to the future, today we can see designers and non-designers working together, using making as a way to make sense of the future. In this paper, we describe the landscape of design research and practice at the end of 2013 with special attention to the role of making across these perspectives: approach (cultural probes, generative toolkits and design prototypes), mindset (designing for people and designing with people), focus in time (the world as it is, the near future and the speculative future) as well as variations in design intent (provoking, engaging and serving).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5-14
Number of pages10
JournalCoDesign: international journal of cocreation in design and the arts
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2014


  • codesign
  • cultural probes
  • design
  • design fiction
  • future
  • generative toolkits
  • making
  • prototypes
  • service design


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