Real-Time Coded Excitation Imaging Using a CMUT-based Side Looking Array for Intravascular Ultrasound

Reza Pakdaman Zangabad, Johan G. Bosch, Frits Mastik, Robert H.S.H. Beurskens, Vincent A. Henneken, Johannes W. Weekamp, Antonius F.W. van der Steen, Gijs van Soest

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)
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Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is a well-established diagnostic method that provides images of the vessel wall and atherosclerotic plaques. We investigate the potential for phased-array IVUS utilizing coded excitation (CE) for improving the penetration depth and image signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). It is realized on a new experimental broadband capacitive micromachined ultrasound transducer (CMUT) array, operated in collapse mode, with 96 elements placed at the circumference of a catheter tip with a 1.2- {mm} diameter. We characterized the array performance for CE imaging and showed that the -6-dB device bandwidth at a 30-V dc biasing is 25 MHz with a 20-MHz center frequency, with a transmit sensitivity of 37 kPa/V at that frequency. We designed a linear frequency modulation code to improve penetration depth by compensating for high-frequency attenuation while preserving resolution by a mismatched filter reconstruction. We imaged a wire phantom and a human coronary artery plaque. By assessing the image quality of the reconstructed wire phantom image, we achieved 60- and 70- mu{mathrm {m}} axial resolutions using the short pulse and coded signal, respectively, and gained 8 dB in SNR for CE. Our developed system shows 20-frames/s, pixel-based beam-formed, real-time IVUS images.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9336716
Pages (from-to)2048-2058
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Atherosclerotic plaque
  • capacitive micromachined ultrasound transducer (CMUT)
  • coded excitation (CE)
  • coronary heart disease
  • intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)
  • mismatched filtering
  • pixel-based beam-forming


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