Real-Time Control of Distributed Batteries with Blockchain-Enabled Market Export Commitments

Benoit Couraud, Valentin Robu, David Flynn, Merlinda Andoni, Sonam Norbu, Honorat Quinard

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Abstract

Recent years have seen a surge of interest in distributed residential batteries for households with renewable generation. Yet, assuring battery assets are profitable requires additional revenue sources, such as novel ways to access wholesale energy markets. In this paper, we propose a framework in which wholesale market bids are placed on forward energy markets by an aggregator of distributed residential batteries that are controlled in real time by a novel Home Energy Management System (HEMS) control algorithm to meet the market commitments, while maximising local self-consumption. The proposed framework consists of three stages. In the first stage, an optimal day-ahead or intra-day scheduling of the aggregated storage assets is computed centrally. For the second stage, a bidding strategy is developed for wholesale energy markets. Finally, in the third stage, a novel HEMS real-time control algorithm based on a smart contract allows coordination of residential batteries to meet the market commitments and maximise self-consumption of local production. We apply the framework to an aggregator with 70 residential batteries. Results indicate that the proposed approach increases the aggregator's revenues by 35% compared to a case without residential flexibility, and increases the self-consumption rate of the households by a factor of two.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)579-591
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy
Volume13
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Keywords

  • Batteries
  • Blockchain
  • Degradation
  • distributed generation
  • Investment
  • Optimization
  • Production
  • Real-time systems
  • Renewable energy sources
  • smart contract
  • smart grids

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