Recent advances in the critical heat flux amelioration of pool boiling surfaces using metal oxide nanoparticle deposition

Hesam Moghadasi, Navid Malekian, Hamid Saffari, Amir Mirza Gheytaghi, Guo Qi Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)
37 Downloads (Pure)


Pool boiling is an effective heat transfer process in a wide range of applications related to energy conversion, including power generation, solar collectors, cooling systems, refrigeration and air conditioning. By considering the broad range of applications, any improvement in higher heat-removal yield can ameliorate the ultimate heat usage and delay or even avoid the occurrence of system failures, thus leading to remarkable economic, environmental and energy efficiency outcomes. A century of research on ameliorating critical heat flux (CHF) has focused on altering the boiling surface characteristics, such as its nucleation site density, wettability, wickability and heat transfer area, by many innovative techniques. Due to the remarkable interest of using nanoparticle deposition on boiling surfaces, this review is targeted towards investigating whether or not metal oxide nanoparticles can modify surface characteristics to enhance the CHF. The influence of nanoparticle material, thermo-physical properties, concentration, shape, and size are categorized, and the inconsistency or contradictions of the existing research results are recognized. In the following, nanoparticle deposition methods are presented to provide a worthwhile alternative to deposition rather than nanofluid boiling. Furthermore, possible mechanisms and models are identified to explain the amelioration results. Finally, the present status of nanoparticle deposition for CHF amelioration, along with their future challenges, amelioration potentials, limitations, and their possible industrial implementation, is discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4026
Pages (from-to)1-49
Number of pages49
Issue number15
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Critical heat flux
  • Energy conversion
  • Metal oxide
  • Nanoparticle deposition
  • Pool boiling


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