Recent Developments in Forward Osmosis Processes

Rodrigo Valladares Linares (Editor), Zhenyu Li (Editor), Elimelech Menachem (Editor), Gary L. Amy (Editor), Hans Vrouwenvelder (Editor)

Research output: Book/ReportBookProfessional


Forward osmosis (FO) is an emerging membrane technology with a range of possible water treatment applications (desalination and wastewater treatment and recovery).

Recent Developments in Forward Osmosis Processes provides an overview of applications, advantages, challenges, costs and current knowledge gaps. Commercial technology, hybrid FO systems for both desalination and water recovery applications have shown to have higher capital cost compared to conventional technologies. Nevertheless, due to the demonstrated lower operational costs of hybrid FO systems, the unit cost for each m3 of fresh water produced with the FO system are lower than conventional desalination/water recovery technologies (i.e. ultrafiltration/RO systems).
Original languageEnglish
PublisherInternational Water Association (IWA)
Number of pages404
ISBN (Electronic)9781780408125
ISBN (Print)9781780408118
Publication statusPublished - 2017


  • Urban water
  • Water supply & treatment
  • Utility / network management
  • Wastewater
  • reuse & sludge


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