Reconstructing 3D proton dose distribution using ionoacoustics

Koen van Dongen, Anne de Blécourt, Eelco Lens, Dennis Schaart, Frans Vos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)
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In proton therapy high energy protons are used to irradiate a tumor. Ideally, the delivered proton dose distribution is measured during treatment to ensure patient safety and treatment effectiveness. Here we investigate if we can use the ionoacoustic wave field to monitor the actual proton dose distribution for the two most commonly used proton accelerators; the isochronous cyclotron and the synchrocyclotron. To this end we model the acoustic field generated by the protons when irradiating a heterogeneous cancerous breast with a 89 MeV proton beam. To differentiate between the systems, idealized temporal micro-structures of the beams have been implemented. Results show that by employing model-based inversion we are able to reconstruct the 3D dose distributions from the simulated noisy pressure fields. Good results are obtained for both systems; the absolute error in the position of the maximum amplitude of the dose distribution is 5.0 mm for the isochronous cyclotron and 5.2 mm for the synchrocyclotron. In conclusion, this numerical study suggests that the ionoacoustic wave field may be used to monitor the proton dose distribution during breast cancer treatment.
Original languageEnglish
Article number225005
Number of pages1
JournalPhysics in Medicine and Biology
Issue number22
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository ‘You share, we take care!’ – Taverne project Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.


  • 3D inversion
  • Bragg peak
  • proton range verification
  • ionoacoustics


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