Both harmony and conflict may occur between local and more distant communities regarding artefactsof cultural heritage. Incoming tourism, which is attracted by cultural heritage, may provide jobs and othermeans of income to local residents. However, incoming tourists may also trigger or accelerate a process ofgentrification in which local residents are directly or symbolically displaced by tourists. Local authorities developgovernance mechanisms to address this issue, both by visioning and formulation of strategies and by issuingdirect tools to regulate use of land and properties in a way that matches this vision. The paper discusses twocase studies in the Netherlands, Amsterdam and Giethoorn, where communities and local authorities strugglewith the threat of over-tourism. The Amsterdam case focuses on gentrification caused by tourists who renthomes as holiday accommodation through online platforms (such as Airbnb) and the governance responseby the city to contain it. The Giethoorn case reveals how economic values of tourism and quality of placeto live are competing in the context of a village with a distinct heritage based on a mode of production thathas become marginalised. The paper aims to improve our understanding of governance responses regardingheritage-based tourism and gentrification. Based on the analysis, the paper also presents three directionsfor research: first, mapping relational geographies of heritage; second, developing interactive tools to bridgeproximate and more distant communities in a process of place making; and third, development and evaluationof governance measures.
Bibliographical noteSpecial Issue: Cultural heritage and social cohesion
- cultural heritage