Partial shading of Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 (CIGS) photovoltaic (PV) modules is getting more attention, as is witnessed by the increase in publications on this topic in recent years. This review will give an overview of shading tests executed on CIGS modules and focuses on the more fundamental aspects that are often studied on cells. Generally, CIGS modules display very attractive performance under predictable row-to-row shading. However, potential damage could occur under nonoptimal shading orientations: module output after shading tests could reduce due to the formation of local shunts, often called wormlike defects. The influence of many factors on the formation of these defects, including the internal currents and voltages and the shape and intensity of the shade, will be discussed. This review allows an increased insight in the degradation mechanisms caused by partial shading, which would ultimately lead to the introduction of more shade-tolerant CIGS PV products in the future.
- energy generation
- thin film