Society's increasing demand for electrical energy, along with the increased integration of remote renewable generation has driven transmission levels to ever higher voltages in order to maintain (or improve) grid efficiency. Consequently, high voltage testing and monitoring beyond voltage levels covered by presently available metrology infrastructures are needed to secure availability and quality of supply. Calibration services for Ultra-High Voltage Direct Current (UHVDC) presently are only available up to 1000 kV. There is a need to extend the DC calibration capabilities for voltage instrument transformers up to 1200 kV and for factory component testing capabilities up to 2000 kV. Also, methods for linear extension of lightning impulse calibration, for dielectric testing of UHV grid equipment, urgently need revision. Recent research has raised questions regarding the validity of the current linearity extension methods for voltages beyond 2500 kV. Furthermore, new methods for calibration are needed for the 0.2 class HVAC voltage instrument transformers for system voltages up to 1200 kV. The current methods used for determination of the voltage dependence are very time consuming, raising the need for methods allowing faster assessment. Finally, with new HVDC transmission grids and associated components, novel methods are needed for detection, classification and localisation of partial discharge (PD) under DC stress. The industry needs methods for reliable monitoring of critical components such as cables, for both HVAC and HVDC, and gas insulated substations (GIS), and techniques for addressing new challenges introduced by HVDC technologies, such as the ability to distinguish PD signals from switching transients in converters and other sources of noise.