The nitrogen-vacancy (N-V) center in diamond has been established as a prime building block for quantum networks. However, scaling beyond a few network nodes is currently limited by low spin-photon entanglement rates, resulting from the N-V center's low probability of coherent photon emission and collection. Integration into a cavity can boost both values via the Purcell effect, but poor optical coherence of near-surface N-V centers has so far prevented their resonant optical control, as would be required for entanglement generation. Here, we overcome this challenge, and demonstrate resonant addressing of individual, fiber-cavity-coupled N-V centers, and collection of their Purcell-enhanced coherent photon emission. Utilizing off-resonant and resonant addressing protocols, we extract an enhancement of the zero-phonon line emission by a factor of up to 4, consistent with a detailed theoretical model. This model predicts that the probability of coherent photon detection per optical excitation can be increased to 10% for realistic parameters - an improvement over state-of-the art solid immersion lens collection systems by 2 orders of magnitude. The resonant operation of an improved optical interface for single coherent quantum emitters in a closed-cycle cryogenic system at T∼4 K is an important result towards extensive quantum networks with long coherence.