Resuming manual control or not? Modelling choices of control transitions in full-range adaptive cruise control

Silvia Varotto, Haneen Farah, T Toledo, Bart van Arem, Serge Hoogendoorn

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference proceedings/Edited volumeConference contributionScientificpeer-review

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Automated vehicles and driving assistance systems such as Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) are expected to reduce traffic congestion, accidents and levels of emissions. Field Operational Tests have found that drivers may prefer to deactivate ACC in dense traffic flow conditions and before changing lanes. Despite the potential effects of these control transitions on traffic flow efficiency and safety, most mathematical models evaluating the impact of ACC do not adequately represent this process.
This research aims to identify the main factors influencing drivers’ choice to resume manual control. A mixed logit model that predicts the choice to deactivate the system or overrule it by pressing the gas pedal was estimated. The dataset was collected in an on-road experiment in which twenty-three participants drove a research vehicle equipped with full-range ACC on a 35.5-km freeway in Munich during peak hours.
The results reveal that drivers are more likely to deactivate the ACC and resume manual control when approaching a slower leader, when expecting vehicles cutting in, when driving above the ACC target speed, and before exiting the freeway. Drivers are more likely to overrule the ACC system by pressing the gas pedal a few seconds after the system has been activated, and when the vehicle decelerates. Everything else being equal, some drivers have higher probabilities to resume manual control. We conclude that a novel 16 conceptual framework linking ACC system settings, driver behavior characteristics, driver characteristics and environmental factors is needed to model driver behavior in control transitions between ACC and 18 manual driving
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 96th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board
Subtitle of host publicationWashington, USA
Number of pages16
Publication statusPublished - 2017
Event96th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board: Transportation Innovation: Leading the Way in an Era of Rapid Change - Walter E. Washington Convention Center, Washington, United States
Duration: 8 Jan 201712 Jan 2017
Conference number: 96


Conference96th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board
Abbreviated titleTRB 96th anual meeting
CountryUnited States
OtherThe meeting program will cover all transportation modes, with more than 5,000 presentations in over 800 sessions and workshops, addressing topics of interest to policy makers, administrators, practitioners, researchers, and representatives of government, industry, and academic institutions
Internet address


  • Control transitions
  • Adaptive Cruise Control
  • on-road experiment
  • driver behavior
  • choice modeling

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