The development of technology in the emergency sanitation sector has not been emphasised sufficiently considering that the management of human excreta is a basic requirement for every person. The lack of technology tailored to emergency situations complicates efforts to cater for sanitation needs in challenging humanitarian crisis. Sanitation response together with the provision of clean water and hygiene promotion are considered life-saving efforts in emergencies. Nevertheless, in an emergency, there is regularly lack of means and limited planning time available to provide an effective and safe sanitation response. Reviewing the existing practices, the emergency toilet options consist of very basic provisions, primarily trench and pit latrines. Whenever it is not possible to dig a pit or trench, the option left is using container based sanitation. This type of sanitation in particular requires a collection or emptying plan, and a subsequent treatment and safe disposal plan, which is usually overlooked in the realm of an emergency where there is limited time to plan for any requirements after toilet provisions.
|Qualification||Doctor of Philosophy|
|Award date||28 Jun 2019|
|Publication status||Published - 2019|