Urban areas suffer from the negative externalities of road transport like congested road networks, air pollution and road traffic accidents. A measure to reduce these negative externalities is road pricing, meaning policies that impose direct charges on road use (Jones and Hervik, 1992). Since the introduction of road pricing in the literature (Knight, 1924; Pigou, 1920a), “congestion charging has been advocated by transport economists for many decades” (Santos et al., 2010a:34). Although many road pricing measures have been implemented, many initiatives have also failed to be implemented. The main barriers to the implementation of road pricing “are typically public and political opposition” (Santos et al., 2010a:34) although other factors that can either contribute to or hamper road pricing policy implementation include the use of revenues, exemptions and privacy issues (Banister, 2004; Borins, 1988; Santos and Shaffer, 2004). Only a small number of studies give insights into how to enable road pricing implementation in practice. The majority of these studies only discuss one or several implementation factors and therefore do not give a complete overview. In this thesis I therefore analyse all known implementation factors in road pricing policy implementation processes. In this thesis “policy implementation encompasses those actions by public or private individuals (or groups) that are directed at the achievement of objectives set forth in prior policy decisions” (Van Meter and Van Horn, 1975:447).
|Award date||8 Jun 2016|
|Publication status||Published - 2016|