Room-temperature sputtered tungsten-doped indium oxide for improved current in silicon heterojunction solar cells

Can Han, Yifeng Zhao, Luana Mazzarella, Rudi Santbergen, Ana Montes, Paul Moya, Guangtao Yang, Xiaodan Zhang, Miro Zeman, Olindo Isabella

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The window layers limit the performance of silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells with front and back contacts. Here, we optimized tungsten-doped indium oxide (IWO) film deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering at room temperature. The opto-electrical properties of the IWO were manipulated when deposited on top of thin-film silicon layers. The optimal IWO on glass shows carrier density and mobility of 2.1 × 1020 cm−3 and 34 cm2 V−1s−1, respectively, which were tuned to 2.0 × 1020 cm−3 and 47 cm2 V−1s−1, as well as 1.9 × 1020 cm−3 and 42 cm2 V−1s−1, after treated on i/n/glass and i/p/glass substrates, respectively. Using the more realistic TCO data that were obtained on thin-film silicon stacks, optical simulation indicates a promising visible-to-near-infrared optical response in IWO-based SHJ device structure, which was demonstrated in fabricated devices. Additionally, by adding an additional magnesium fluoride layer on device, the champion IWO-based SHJ device showed an active area cell efficiency of 22.92%, which is an absolute 0.98% efficiency gain compared to the ITO counterpart, mainly due to its current gain of 1.48 mA/cm2.
Original languageEnglish
Article number111082
Number of pages9
JournalSolar Energy Materials and Solar Cells
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Improved near-infrared response
  • Room temperature transparent electrode
  • Silicon heterojunction solar cell
  • Tungsten-doped indium oxide


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