S-Transform based fault detection algorithm for enhancing distance protection performance

Jose J. Chavez, Marjan Popov, David López , Sadegh Azizi, Vladimir Terzija

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)
33 Downloads (Pure)


This paper presents a new fault detection algorithm based on the Fast Discrete Stockwell Transform. The algorithm can improve the functionality of existing distance protection and resolve shortcomings identified during the fault detection process in case of fault occurrence in systems with a high penetration of power electronics-based generators. Reported results of the operation of commercial distance relays of four different vendors show that all relays experience difficulties during ungrounded faults. An RTDS testbed is developed for extensive hardware in the loop testing, comprising electromagnetic transient models of Type-3 and Type-4 wind generators. The proposed algorithm successfully overcomes the identified problems for cases where commercial relays maloperate. The threshold parameters for the fault detection are set by using the energy content attributed to the Fast Discrete Stockwell Transform time–frequency domain signal. Other distance protection modules such as the determination of directionality, phase selection and the computation of the impedance, which are necessary for the protection selectivity, are developed based on currently available solutions applied in commercial relays. The new algorithm has been extensively tested using RTDS for various fault conditions and the obtained results are reported in the paper.
Original languageEnglish
Article number106966
Pages (from-to)1-9
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Distance protection
  • Fault detection algorithm
  • RTDS
  • Testing


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