Recent research efforts aimed at iteratively solving the Helmholtz equation have focused on incorporating deation techniques for accelerating the convergence of Krylov subpsace methods. The requisite for these efforts lies in the fact that the widely used and well-acknowledged complex shifted Laplacian preconditioner (CSLP) shifts the eigenvalues of the preconditioned system towards the origin as the wave number increases. The two-level-deation preconditioner combined with CSLP showed encouraging results in moderating the rate at which the eigenvalues approach the origin. However, for large wave numbers the initial problem resurfaces and the near-zero eigenvalues reappear. Our findings reveal that the reappearance of these near-zero eigenvalues occurs if the near-singular eigenmodes of the fine-grid operator and the coarse-grid operator are not properly aligned. This misalignment is caused by accumulating approximation errors during the inter-grid transfer operations. We propose the use of higher-order approximation schemes to construct the deation vectors. The results from rigorous Fourier analysis and numerical experiments confirm that our newly proposed scheme outperforms any other deation-based preconditioner for the Helmholtz problem. In particular, the spectrum of the adjusted preconditioned operator stays fixed near one. These results can be generalized to general shifted indefinite systems with random right-hand sides. For the first time, the convergence properties for very large wave numbers (k = 106 in one dimension and k = 103 in two dimensions) have been studied, and the convergence is close to wave number independence. Wave number independence for three dimensions has been obtained for wave numbers up to k = 75. The new scheme additionally shows very promising results for the more challenging Marmousi problem. Irrespective of the strongly varying wave number, we obtain a constant number of iterations and a reduction in computational time as the results remain robust without the use of the CSLP preconditioner.
- Helmholtz equation