Scalable Photochromic Film for Solar Heat and Daylight Management

Weihao Meng, Augustinus J.J. Kragt, Yingtao Gao, Eleonora Brembilla, Julia S. van der Burgt, Albertus P.H.J. Schenning, Tillmann Klein, Eric R. van den Ham, Jingxia Wang*, More Authors

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


The adaptive control of sunlight through photochromic smart windows could have a huge impact on the energy efficiency and daylight comfort in buildings. However, the fabrication of inorganic nanoparticle and polymer composite photochromic films with a high contrast ratio and high transparency/low haze remains a challenge. Here, a solution method is presented for the in situ growth of copper-doped tungsten trioxide nanoparticles in polymethyl methacrylate, which allows a low-cost preparation of photochromic films with a high luminous transparency (luminous transmittance Tlum = 91%) and scalability (30 × 350 cm2). High modulation of visible light (ΔTlum = 73%) and solar heat (modulation of solar transmittance ΔTsol = 73%, modulation of solar heat gain coefficient ΔSHGC = 0.5) of the film improves the indoor daylight comfort and energy efficiency. Simulation results show that low-e windows with the photochromic film applied can greatly enhance the energy efficiency and daylight comfort. This photochromic film presents an attractive strategy for achieving more energy-efficient buildings and carbon neutrality to combat global climate change.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2304910
Number of pages12
JournalAdvanced Materials
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2024

Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository 'You share, we take care!' - Taverne project
Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.


W.M., A.J.J.K., and Y.G. contributed equally to this work. The authors thank the financial support of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Dutch research project (1A111KYSB20190072) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant nos. 52373001, 51873221, 52073292, 51673270, 21774003, and 51373183).


  • daylight comfort
  • energy saving
  • photochromicity
  • scalability
  • smart windows
  • transparency
  • tungsten trioxide


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