Scenario-based risk assessment of TENORM waste disposal options in oil and gas industry

Khalid ALNabhani, Faisal Khan*, Ming Yang

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)


Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Nuclear Radioactive Materials (TENORM) waste in the petroleum industry has become a serious concern as a potential source of radiation. The risk of being exposed to TENORM waste must be identified and controlled to protect workers, the general public and the environment. This paper presents an analysis of TENORM waste disposal options and risk assessment methods commonly used in the oil and gas industry. To assess their effectiveness, the paper utilizes an integrated fate and transport methodology and exposure pathways. The paper also studies plausible scenarios in which the contaminants can migrate through the geosphere and biosphere, reaching the environment, animals and humans. A real case scenario of TENORM waste disposed in an evaporation pond is simulated using RESRAD (version 6.5) where real data used as input parameters to evaluate the potential radiological doses and increased carcinogenic risk. To both understand and validate the simulated results, the findings of the real case scenario are compared with results obtained using a similar simulated scenario constructed from a literature review.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)55-66
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • Cancer
  • Doses
  • Fate
  • Inhalation
  • Risk assessment


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