As part of a seismic monitoring project in a geothermal field, where the feasibility of re-injection and storage of produced CO2 is being investigated, a P-and S-wave seismic velocity characterisation study was carried out. The effect of axial (up to 95 MPa) and radial (up to 60 MPa) stress on the seismic velocity was studied in the laboratory for a broad range of dry sedimentary and metamorphic rocks that make up the Kızıldere geothermal system in Turkey. Thin section texture analyses conducted on the main reservoir formations, i.e., marble and calcschist, confirm the importance of the presence of fractures in the reservoir: 2D permeability increases roughly by a factor 10 when fractures are present. Controlled acoustic-assisted unconfined and confined compressive strength experiments revealed the stress-dependence of seismic velocities related to the several rock formations. For each test performed, a sharp increase in velocity was observed at relatively low absolute stress levels, as a result of the closure of microcracks, yielding an increased mineral-to-mineral contact area, thus velocity. A change in radial stress appeared to have a negligible impact on the resulting P-wave velocity, as long as it exceeds atmospheric pressure. The bulk of the rock formations studied showed reducing P-wave velocities as function of increasing temperature due to thermal expansion of the constituting minerals. This effect was most profound for the marble and calcschist samples investigated.
- Acoustic measurements
- CO storage
- Geothermal reservoir
- Seismic monitoring
- Seismic velocity characterisation