The application of zero liquid discharge (ZLD) results in the generation of solid residual streams, which are often not fit for reuse. In this study, we assessed the separation of natural organic matter (NOM) and sodium chloride (NaCl) by nanofiltration (NF), electrodialysis (ED) and ion exchange (IEX) in reverse osmosis brine (RO-brine) and by the extraction of impurities from salt (SALEX) in the generated mixed solids of a full-scale ZLD water treatment plant. The NaCl recovery by NF, ED and IEX ranged 69-99% and the rejection of NOM ranged 18–19%, 43–65% and 53–76%, respectively. The recovery of NaCl by SALEX ranged 52–99%, while the rejection of NOM ranged 59–92%. The results show that NOM and NaCl can be sepa-rated both in RO-brine and mixed solids, opening opportunities for recovery of reusable salt from brines in ZLD.
- Ion exchange