Setting SMART targets for industrial energy use and industrial energy efficiency

Martijn G. Rietbergen, Kornelis Blok

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)


Industrial energy policies often require the setting of quantitative targets to reduce energy use and/or greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper a taxonomy has been developed for categorizing SMART industrial energy use or greenhouse gas emission reduction targets. The taxonomy includes volume reduction targets, physical efficiency improvement targets, economic intensity improvement targets and economic targets. This paper also provides a comprehensive overview of targets for industrial energy use or greenhouse gas emission reductions at sector or firm level in past, current and proposed future policies worldwide. This overview includes approximately 50 different emission permit systems, voluntary or negotiated agreement schemes and emission trading systems. Finally, the paper includes an assessment of the various types of targets. The target types are compared with respect to the certainty of the environmental outcome and compliance costs, the targets' relevance for the public and for industry and their environmental integrity, as well as their complexity and potential for comparison.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4339-4354
Number of pages16
JournalEnergy Policy
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2010
Externally publishedYes


  • Efficiency targets
  • Intensity targets
  • Volume targets


Dive into the research topics of 'Setting SMART targets for industrial energy use and industrial energy efficiency'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this