Shared control versus traded control in driving: a debate around automation pitfalls

J. C.F. de Winter*, S. M. Petermeijer, D. A. Abbink

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)
353 Downloads (Pure)


A major question in human-automation interaction is whether tasks should be traded or shared between human and automation. This work presents reflections—which have evolved through classroom debates between the authors over the past 10 years—on these two forms of human-automation interaction, with a focus on the automated driving domain. As in the lectures, we start with a historically informed survey of six pitfalls of automation: (1) Loss of situation and mode awareness, (2) Deskilling, (3) Unbalanced mental workload, (4) Behavioural adaptation, (5) Misuse, and (6) Disuse. Next, one of the authors explains why he believes that haptic shared control may remedy the pitfalls. Next, another author rebuts these arguments, arguing that traded control is the most promising way to improve road safety. This article ends with a common ground, explaining that shared and traded control outperform each other at medium and low environmental complexity, respectively. Practitioner summary: Designers of automation systems will have to consider whether humans and automation should perform tasks alternately or simultaneously. The present article provides an in-depth reflection on this dilemma, which may prove insightful and help guide design. Abbreviations: ACC: Adaptive Cruise Control: A system that can automatically maintain a safe distance from the vehicle in front; AEB: Advanced Emergency Braking (also known as Autonomous Emergency Braking): A system that automatically brakes to a full stop in an emergency situation; AES: Automated Evasive Steering: A system that automatically steers the car back into safety in an emergency situation; ISA: Intelligent Speed Adaptation: A system that can limit engine power automatically so that the driving speed does not exceed a safe or allowed speed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1494-1520
Number of pages27
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • automated driving
  • driverless cars
  • function allocation
  • human factors
  • Human-automation interaction
  • human-robot interaction
  • shared control
  • traded control


Dive into the research topics of 'Shared control versus traded control in driving: a debate around automation pitfalls'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this