In blended seismic acquisition, or simultaneous source seismic acquisition, source encoding is essential at the acquisition stage to allow for separation of the blended sources at the processing stage. In land seismic surveys, the vibroseis sources may be encoded with near-orthogonal sweeps for blending. In marine seismic surveys, the sweep type of source encoding is difficult because the main source type in marine seismic exploration is the air-gun array, which has an impulsive character. Another issue in marine streamer seismic data acquisition is that the spatial source sampling is generally coarse. This hinders the deblending performance of algorithms based on the random time delay blending code that inherently requires a dense source sampling because they exploit the signal coherency in the common-receiver domain. We have developed an alternative source code called shot repetition that exploits the impulsive character of the marine seismic source in blending. This source code consists of repeated spikes of ones and can be realized physically by activating a broadband impulsive source more than once at (nearly) the same location. Optimization of the shot-repetition type of blending code was done to improve the deblending performance. As a result of using shot repetition, the deblending process can be carried out in individual shot gathers. Therefore, our method has no need for a regular dense source sampling: It can cope with irregular sparse source sampling; it can help with real-time data quality control. In addition, the use of shot repetition is beneficial for reducing the background noise in the deblended data. We determine the feasibility of our method on numerical examples.
- Seismic acquisition
- Source encoding