Simulating the acoustic response of cavities to improve microphone array measurements in closed test section wind tunnels

Colin Vandercreek*, Francesco Avallone, Daniele Ragni, Mirjam Snellen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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Abstract

Cavities placed along wind tunnel walls can attenuate the turbulent boundary layer (TBL) fluctuations as they propagate into the cavity. Placing microphones within the cavities can thus improve the signal-to-noise ratio of acoustic data. However, standing waves form within these cavities distorting the acoustic measurements. This work uses a finite element (FE) solver to evaluate how cavity geometry (depth, diameter, and wall angle) and wall material (hard-walled and melamine foam) affect the amplitude and eigenfrequency of standing waves when excited by an incident acoustic plane wave. Good agreement between predicted and measured acoustic transfer functions is shown. Compared to cylindrical cavities, countersunk and conical cavities improve the overall response, i.e., reducing the quality factor quantifying the resonance and damping characteristics. Stainless steel coverings also reduce the quality factor. A finding is that the shape of the external foam holder rather than the cavity shape drives the standing wave characteristics for the melamine foam cavities. The optimization problem of minimizing the acoustic response while also attenuating the TBL is thus decoupled by using the melamine foam. Consequently, these considerations can be addressed independently by optimizing the outer cavity shape for acoustics and the melamine foam insert for TBL attenuation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)322-333
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of the Acoustical Society of America
Volume151
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2022

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