Nowadays, Sn-based electrocatalysts for the electrochemical CO2 reduction reaction (eCO2RR) toward formic acid have been reported to reach industrially relevant current densities and Faradaic efficiencies approaching 100%. However, electrocatalyst stability remains inadequate and appears to be a crucial piece to the puzzle, as lifetimes in the range of several thousands of hours should be reached for practical application and economic viability. Here, we provide insights into stability issues related to Sn-based electrocatalysts and electrolyzers for formic acid production. By determining the chemical and physical phenomena that occur during the electrochemical reduction reaction on the surface and bulk of Sn-based catalysts, we intend to elucidate the most common degradation mechanisms that impair long-term electrocatalytic activity of these catalysts. Moreover, highlighting the importance of correctly selected process conditions and an optimized reactor design allows us to unveil all necessary aspects for a stable Sn-based eCO2RR toward formic acid.
Bibliographical noteGreen Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository 'You share, we take care!' - Taverne project https://www.openaccess.nl/en/you-share-we-take-care
Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.