Solid-State Infrared Upconversion in Perylene Diimides Followed by Direct Electron Injection

Kevin M. Felter, Maria C. Fravventura, Emma Koster, Ruben D. Abellon, Tom J. Savenije, Ferdinand C. Grozema*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)
95 Downloads (Pure)


In this contribution we demonstrate a solid-state approach to triplet-triplet annihilation upconversion for application in a solar cell device in which absorption of near-infrared light is followed by direct electron injection into an inorganic substrate. We use time-resolved microwave photoconductivity experiments to study the injection of electrons into the electron-accepting substrate (TiO2) in a trilayer device consisting of a triplet sensitizer (fluorinated zinc phthalocyanine), triplet acceptor (methyl subsituted perylenediimide), and smooth polycrystalline TiO2. Absorption of light at 700 nm leads to the almost quantitative generation of triplet excited states by intersystem crossing. This is followed by Dexter energy transfer to the triplet acceptor layer where triplet annihilation occurs and concludes by injection of an electron into TiO2 from the upconverted singlet excited state.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)124-129
Number of pages6
JournalACS Energy Letters
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2020


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