Spiderweb Array: A Sparse Spin-Qubit Array

Jelmer M. Boter, Juan P. Dehollain, Jeroen P.G. Van Dijk, Yuanxing Xu, Toivo Hensgens, Richard Versluis, Henricus W.L. Naus, Menno Veldhorst, Fabio Sebastiano, Lieven M.K. Vandersypen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

33 Citations (Scopus)
58 Downloads (Pure)


One of the main bottlenecks in the pursuit of a large-scale-chip-based quantum computer is the large number of control signals needed to operate qubit systems. As system sizes scale up, the number of terminals required to connect to off-chip control electronics quickly becomes unmanageable. Here, we discuss a quantum-dot spin-qubit architecture that integrates on-chip control electronics, allowing for a significant reduction in the number of signal connections at the chip boundary. By arranging the qubits in a two-dimensional array with about 12μm pitch, we create space to implement locally integrated sample-and-hold circuits. This allows us to offset the inhomogeneities in the potential landscape across the array and to globally share the majority of the control signals for qubit operations. We make use of advanced circuit modeling software to go beyond conceptual drawings of the component layout, to assess the feasibility of the scheme through a concrete floor plan, including estimates of footprints for quantum and classical electronics, as well as routing of signal lines across the chip using different interconnect layers. We make use of local demultiplexing circuits to achieve an efficient signal-connection scaling, leading to a Rent's exponent as low as p=0.43. Furthermore, we use available data from state-of-the-art spin qubit and microelectronics technology development, as well as circuit models and simulations, to estimate the operation frequencies and power consumption of a million-qubit array. This work presents a complementary approach to previously proposed architectures, focusing on a feasible scheme to integrating quantum and classical hardware, and identifying remaining challenges for achieving full fault-tolerant quantum computation. It thereby significantly closes the gap towards a fully CMOS-compatible quantum computer implementation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number024053
Number of pages20
JournalPhysical Review Applied
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2022


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