We investigate hole spin relaxation in the single- and multihole regime in a 2 × 2 germanium quantum dot array. We find spin relaxation times T1 as high as 32 and 1.2 ms for quantum dots with single- and five-hole occupations, respectively, setting benchmarks for spin relaxation times for hole quantum dots. Furthermore, we investigate qubit addressability and electric field sensitivity by measuring resonance frequency dependence of each qubit on gate voltages. We can tune the resonance frequency over a large range for both single and multihole qubits, while simultaneously finding that the resonance frequencies are only weakly dependent on neighboring gates. In particular, the five-hole qubit resonance frequency is more than 20 times as sensitive to its corresponding plunger gate. Excellent individual qubit tunability and long spin relaxation times make holes in germanium promising for addressable and high-fidelity spin qubits in dense two-dimensional quantum dot arrays for large-scale quantum information.
- quantum dots
- spin relaxation