Stability of rock-armoured mild slopes

Daan Jumelet, Marcel R.A. van Gent*, Bas Hofland, Coen Kuiper

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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Physical model tests have been performed to study static stability of rock-armoured mild slopes. Current stability design formulae for steeper rock-armoured slopes focus on plunging and surging waves. Slopes of 1:6 and milder usually have more spilling breakers which decreases the load. Also, on mild slopes displaced rocks more often remain present in the wave attack zone, which increases the strength. These aspects lead to an overdesigned structure when existing formulae for steep rock-armoured slopes are used. The present wave flume tests were used to understand the processes and develop a design formula for rock-armoured mild slopes with an impermeable core. These tests were performed for statically stable rock-armoured slopes of 1:6 to 1:10. The tests confirmed that not all existing damage parameters are able to accurately describe the static stability on milder slopes. For mild slopes it is more accurate to describe the damage based on the eroded depth rather than on the eroded area or number of moved stones. In this study, a design formula and guidelines are provided for practicing engineers that design or evaluate the stability of mild rock-armoured slopes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number104418
Number of pages15
JournalCoastal Engineering
Publication statusPublished - 2024


  • Armour stability
  • Coastal structures
  • Damage characterisation
  • Design guidelines
  • Erosion
  • Mild slopes
  • Physical model tests
  • Rock slopes
  • Slope protection
  • Wave loading


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