Stated choices and simulated experiences: Differences in the value of travel time and reliability

Muhammad Fayyaz, Michiel C.J. Bliemer, Matthew J. Beck, Stephane Hess, J. W.C. van Lint

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Surveys with stated choice experiments (SCE) are widely used to derive values of time and reliability for transport project appraisal purposes. However, such methods ask respondents to make hypothetical choices, which in turn could create a bias between choices made in the experiment compared to those in an environment where the choices have consequence. In this paper, borrowing principles of experimental economics, we introduce an incentive compatible driving simulator experiment, where participants are required to experience the travel time of their chosen route and actually pay any toll costs associated with the choice of a tolled road. In a first for the literature, we use a within respondent design to compare both the value of travel time savings (VTT) and value of travel time reliability (VOR) across a typical SCE and an environment with simulated consequence. Given the importance of VTT and VOR to transport decision making and the difficulty in estimating VOR using revealed preference data, our results are noteworthy and emphasise that more research on this topic is imperative. We provide suggestions on how the results herein may be used in future studies, to potentially reduce hypothetical bias that may be exhibited in SCE.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103145
Pages (from-to)1-19
Number of pages19
JournalTransportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository ‘You share, we take care!’ – Taverne project Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.


  • Hypothetical bias
  • Incentive compatible driving simulator experiments
  • Route choice behaviour
  • Stated choice experiments
  • Value of travel time
  • Value of travel time reliability


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